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# Learnsmart Chapter 2a Flashcards

BThis column represents actual physical units accounted for before converting to equivalent units. AThis column represents actual physical units accounted for before converting to equivalent units. Later in step 3, we will use equivalent unit information for the Assembly department to calculate the cost per equivalent unit. This step shows that 3,000 units were in WIP inventory on May 1 and 6,000 units were started during May. These 9,000 units will end up in one of two places, either completed and transferred out or not completed and therefore in ending WIP inventory.

• This involves determining which category of completed units the spoilage came from.
• Completed units that have not yet been sold are found in ______ ______ inventory.
• The total costs include materials, labor, and overhead.
• For the units in the beginning inventory, once the current period costs are calculated, they are added to the costs incurred in prior periods to determine the total costs for these units.
• The cost of goods made or bought is adjusted according to change in inventory.
• Direct labor costs totaling \$3,500 were incurred in the Molding department, to be paid the next month.

A journal entry that debits Work in process and Manufacturing overhead and credits Raw materials records the ______. Make the appropriate journal entry to record the cost flow. Assume a weighted average cost flow, calculate the following and round your answers to four decimal places. Part I. Assume the weighted average cost flow assumption is used and determine the following amounts. 2.) Solve the problem assuming Bilco uses the FIFO cost flow assumption. Assume, as in question 1 that \$122,000 is transferred to Assembly. If reasonably accurate estimates of the disposal values of the spoilage can be made, these amounts are subtracted in determining the spoilage costs as indicated in Equations and .

## Chapter 2 Learnsmart

The posting is supported by the closing entry recorded at the end of the accounting period containing the Process a/c multiple times. 2,41,500 To balance b/d 2,100 2,41,500 The posting is supported by the closing entry recorded at the end of the accounting period. Units started and partially completed during the period will increase to 225,000 . This is the projected ending WIP inventory at March 31. Using the following assumptions, prepare a revised estimate of production results in the form of a production cost report for the month of March.

It is not practical to illustrate all possible methods in a textbook, but you should be aware that many alternatives exist. Step II FIFO. Assigning cost to the completed units is more involved when FIFO is used.

• These 9,000 units will end up in one of two places, either completed and transferred out or not completed and therefore in ending WIP inventory.
• Often, this is the case when the manufacturing operation is short enough to allow all work in process to be completed when the period ends and current accounts are closed.
• When a company has units that are started and completed during a period and has an ending inventory of units in process, most often the weighted average method is used to calculate equivalent units.
• When the product is finalized, it switches from WIP to being categorized as a finished product.
• Use the cost per equivalent unit to assign costs to completed units transferred out and units in ending WIP inventory.
• Direct labor costs incurred during the month but not yet paid .
• Cost of goods should be minimized in order to increase profits.

The idea is that conversion work is preformed more or less continuously, while materials are added at a specific point in the process, e.g., at the beginning of the process or at the end of the process. In process costing system, a separate work in process account is maintained for each department. The cost flows in parallel to the flow of physical units. When the processing work in a department is completed, the units along with their cost are transferred to the next department to be undergone for further processing. Work-in-progress, as mentioned above, is sometimes used to refer toassetsthat require a considerable amount of time to complete, such as consulting or construction projects. This differentiation may not necessarily be the norm, so either term can be used to refer to unfinished products in most situations.

## 2 Product Cost Flows In A Process Costing System

These 6,000 units are included in the 90,000 completed units, but only the equivalent work performed during the current month belongs in the denominator. This includes the 84,000 units started and finished this month (i.e., 90, ,000) and the 16,000 units in the ending inventory. The entire 16,000 units are included in the denominator because these units received completed units that have not yet been sold are found in 100 percent of the required material during the current month. In fact, in the Cutting Department, the unit is the material. Step I WA. Observe from Exhibit 5-6 that two unit cost calculations are required in the Cutting Department. This is because the stage of completion for the units in ending work in process is different for material and conversion.

The 10,000 units in the beginning inventory received material during the current month as they reached the end of the process. Therefore these units are included in the denominator as part of the 88,000 completed units. The requirements for the weighted average cost flow assumption are provided in Exhibit 5-6 for both departments.

## Transferred Costs Of Finished Goods From The Shaping Department To The Packaging Department

He has performed as Teacher’s Assistant and Assistant Lecturer in University. A _____ ______ is a document used to record how long workers spend on each job and task. Overapplied overhead would result in a ________ ________. Flow of costs refers to the manner or path in which costs move through a firm. Works in progress may also be called in-process inventory.

The EWIP is 100 percent complete as far as transferred-in cost is concerned because this category represents work performed in the first department. No material costs are assigned to EWIP because these 12,000 units have not reached the point where the materials are attached. Since EWIP is 46 percent complete as far as labor and overhead is concerned, .46 multiplied by the unit conversion cost of 5.222 is assigned to each of the 12,000 units. The cost of the units completed and transferred to finished goods is calculated in the usual way using Equation . The amount is rounded up by approximately \$3 to adjust for the rounding error. The first form of Equation provides a conceptual definition for unit cost when the FIFO cost flow assumption is chosen.

## How Is Absorption Costing Treated Under Gaap?

Consequently, there were 1,000 equivalent units for materials and 350 equivalent units for direct labor and manufacturing overhead. The per unit costs are based on the equivalent units completed and the total costs incurred on those units. Under the FIFO method , costs are tracked based on specific units. Per unit costs are current period unit costs and calculated based on equivalent units completed and costs incurred for the current period. For the units in the beginning inventory, once the current period costs are calculated, they are added to the costs incurred in prior periods to determine the total costs for these units. The equivalent units for materials would be the number of units times the percent complete. In this example, all the materials are added at the beginning of the process so 100% of materials for this function are included in all the units at the end of the period.

When labor costs are incurred, _________ labor costs are added directly to the Work in Process account. Raw materials is debited in the journal entry to record the purchase of ________.

The units that are in the beginning work in process are normally finished during the month, as well as some of the units that are started during the month. Usually units completed and units transferred are the same, but there are exceptions, e.g., where the next process has limited space. Any completed units that are spoiled are not included in this category. Equivalent units is a cost accounting concept that is used in process costing for cost calculations.

## Which Of The Following Costs Are Charged Directly To The Income Statement?

The weighted average unit costs in the Assembly Department are based on the \$1,636,674 single cost pool that includes the \$104,000 assigned to BWIP at the end of the previous month. Exhibit 5-11 presents a similar view of the Assembly Department. One cost pool represents the \$104,000 assigned to BWIP at the end of the previous period and the other cost pool is for the \$1,532,357 added during the current period. When assigning the cost to units, the \$104,000 stays with the BWIP. The stage of completion that appears in Exhibit 5-5 for the beginning and ending inventories refers to the average stage applicable to the conversion work performed. As far as material is concerned, the units are either 100% complete, or 0% complete depending on where the material is placed in production. In the cutting department, the units in BWIP and EWIP are 100% complete in terms of material because the material is added at the beginning of the process.

• Units of product that are only partially complete are contained in the _____ ______ ________ inventory.
• However, study both alternatives to help strengthen your understanding of the concepts involved.
• One work-in-process inventory account is used—job cost sheets track costs assigned to each job.
• When a rounding error occurs, it is convenient to adjust the largest amount so that the total will be equal to the total cost to be accounted for.
• We also reference original research from other reputable publishers where appropriate.
• She has expertise in finance, investing, real estate, and world history.

The Molding department requisitioned direct materials totaling \$2,000 to be used in production. Identify whether each business listed in the following would use job costing or process costing. A new competitor recently began producing a similar desk, and Ann is concerned about whether Desk Products’ production costs are reasonable. In particular, Ann is concerned about the costs in the Assembly department since this department is responsible for the majority of the company’s production costs.

## What Is The Difference Between Raw Material Inventory & Finished Goods?

As noted above, the previous period’s ending inventory becomes the current period’s beginning inventory. These costs are not lumped together with the current period costs as in the weighted average method. The unit cost calculation is based on the second cost pool that represents only cost added during the current month. The denominator in the calculation represents the work performed during the current month. The production manager is told to push his employees to get as far as possible with production, thereby increasing the percentage of completion for ending WIP inventory.

## Handling Inventory Cost Changes

Rate by the actual amount of the allocation base incurred by the job. Underapplied or overapplied manufacturing overhead can be disposed of by closing it to ______. Select all that apply Manufacturing overhead costs include ______. Cost of work done in prior periods A job cost sheet is used for a job in progress. The cost of completed, unsold jobs is in Finished Goods. Every cost can be defined with two of these four costs.

The costs of goods manufactured is the cost of jobs completed during the period – Jobs 23A and 45B. Units of product that are only partially complete are contained in the _____ ______ ________ inventory.

## The Costs Of Goods ________ Are The Sum Of All Amounts Transferred From Work In Process To Finished Goods During A Period

The term work-in-progress is a production and supply-chain management term describing partially finished goods awaiting completion. WIP refers to the raw materials, labor, and overhead costs incurred for products that are at various stages of the production process. WIP is a component of the inventory asset account on the balance sheet. These costs are subsequently transferred to the finished goods account and eventually to the cost of sales. 1.) Assume Bilco uses the weighted average cost flow assumption.

That strategy gets you to what the question is truly asking. Then you can read the rest of the question — and pull out only the data you need to answer the question. Wheel Company II. The following information is given for the second department in a process cost environment.

However, once you understand the basic accounting techniques for process cost accumulation, then you will be ready for the more realistic problems that include spoilage. You might find it helpful to work one or two problems that do not include spoilage (e.g., Problems 5-1 and 5-2) before you tackle this section. Adding spoilage is a fairly easy step in the learning process, https://accounting-services.net/ once you have the necessary foundation, but before you reach that point, it tends to be confusing. This algorithm does not keep the units in the beginning inventory separate from the units started during the period. They are lumped together in a single cost pool as indicated in step I below. 3) Units started during the current month and finished during the current month.

He became a member of the Society of Professional Journalists in 2009. This free cost of goods sold calculator will help you do this calculation easily. Thus, to ascertain the value of work-in-progress we need to know the expenditure incurred on it till that time when it is being valued. Since inventories are assets, the principle for valuation of assets is used in valuing inventories also. All the expenses incurred on the inventories before they are brought into usable condition would form part of the value of the inventories. Repair and renewal expenses incurred for bringing up a second hand machine purchased into use. All inventories are clubbed under the head Closing Stock shown on the assets side of the balance sheet.

The costs allocated to the rest of the completed units, i.e., the 84,000 units that were started and finished during the current month, is also calculated in Equation . Then the sum of these two calculations (i.e., 50,762 + 753,236) provides the amount to transfer to the Assembly Department before the rounding error adjustment. The cost of the ending inventory is calculated using equation . Mechanically, the EWIP calculation is just like the one used in the weighted average solution, although the unit costs are different. Recall the three components of product costs—direct materials, direct labor, and manufacturing overhead.

## Financial And Managerial Accounting

Each roof is a different size and will require specific roofing equipment and a varying number of labor hours. Each bid lists the labor, material, and overhead costs for the work. Work in process is debited in the journal entry to record the issue of _______. Manufacturing overhead is debited in the journal entry to record the issue of _________. Job #4260 consisted of 1,000 units at a total cost of \$200,000. The cost transferred to Cost of Goods Sold for the sale of 600 of the units is ______. Familiarize yourself with the most important formulas, terms, and principles you need to know to apply cost accounting.

Let’s take a closer look at the company’s costs depending on its level of production. Let’s say that XYZ Company manufactures automobiles and it costs the company \$250 to make one steering wheel. In order to run its business, the company incurs \$550,000 in rental fees for its factory space. Graphically, we can see that fixed costs are not related to the volume of automobiles produced by the company.