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What Type of Law Comes from Each Branch of Government

Both houses of Congress have broad investigative powers and can compel the presentation of evidence or testimony for any purpose they deem necessary. Members of Congress spend a lot of time holding hearings and inquiries in committee. Refusal to cooperate with a congressional subpoena may result in a contempt of Congress indictment, which may result in jail time. Judges write expert opinionsJudges vote on the case and write their opinions. The majority opinion, shared by more than half of the judges, is decided by the Court of Justice. Judges who disagree with the majority opinion write dissenting or minority opinions. The President of the United States administers the executive branch of our government. The President enforces the laws that the legislature (Congress) makes. The president is elected by U.S. citizens 18 years of age and older who participate in presidential elections in their states. These votes are counted by the states and form the electoral college system. States have a number of electoral votes equal to the number of senators and representatives they have. It is possible to have the most votes in the entire country and NOT win the electoral votes of the Electoral College.

There are two other options that the president can exercise. If Congress convenes and the president does nothing within 10 days, the bill becomes law. If Congress adjourns before the expiration of the 10-day period and the president takes no action, the bill dies and Congress cannot vote to repeal. This is called a pocket veto, and if Congress still wants to pass the bill, it will have to restart the whole process. The judiciary interprets the meaning of laws, applies laws to individual cases and decides whether laws violate the Constitution. It consists of the Supreme Court and other federal courts. In the United States, government is organized into three levels: federal, state, and local (e.g., counties and municipalities). Each level of government has unique responsibilities. For example, the federal government is responsible for national affairs such as international affairs and national defence. The state government is responsible for education and defining property rights. Local governments often deal with issues such as fire protection and policing, as well as land use regulations.

While these examples oversimplify government activities in the United States in the 21st century, they illustrate the relative roles of each level of government. Once submitted, a bill is referred to the appropriate committee for review. There are 17 Senate committees with 70 subcommittees and 23 House committees with 104 subcommittees. Committees are not set in stone, but change in number and form with each new congress, as is necessary for an effective revision of legislation. Each committee oversees a specific policy area, and subcommittees deal with more specific policy areas. For example, the House Ways and Means Committee includes subcommittees on Social Security and Trade. The legislature includes Congress and the agencies that support its work. The Constitution gives Congress the power to establish other federal courts to deal with matters involving federal laws, including taxation and bankruptcy, lawsuits involving U.S. and state governments or the Constitution, and more.

Other federal justice agencies and programs support the courts and conduct justice policy research. Congress also maintains an investigative organization, the Government Accountability Office (GAO). Founded in 1921 as the General Accounting Office, its initial role was to audit budgets and financial reports sent to Congress by the Secretary of the Treasury and the Director of the Office of Management and Budget. Today, the GAO reviews and reports on all aspects of government, ensuring that taxpayer dollars are spent with the effectiveness and efficiency that the American people deserve. Our federal government consists of three parts. These are the executive branch (president and about 5,000,000 workers), the legislative branch (Senate and House of Representatives) and the judiciary (Supreme Court and lower courts). The federal government of the United States, whether seen as a beacon of democracy or a symbol of modern political impasse, was undeniably a revolutionary institution in its early days. The White House reports that the executive branch, including members of the U.S. military, employs more than 4 million Americans.